By: Writing Tips Today
When you write the literature review for your thesis or dissertation, you will need to use integral citations. In his 1990 publication, John Swales explains the difference between integral and non-integral citations.
In integral citations, the name of the author appears in the sentence itself. However, in non-integral citations, the name of the author normally appears in parenthesis after the sentence, usually by using the author's last name and the year of publication.
Integral citations may take a variety of forms. Please look at these examples:
According to Smith (2007), funding is one of the main problems which educators face.
Jones (2009) stated that state governements should do more to address the problem.
Planget's theory (2002) is that classroom size is inversely related to the ease of classroom management.
An opposing viewpoint is expressed by by Carlson (2003).
Now match each of the examples above with the description of its form below:
Researcher name as grammatical subject of the sentence
Researcher name as part of a reporting phrase
Researcher name as agent of a passive sentence
Researcher name as part of a possessive noun phrase
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