Litertaure Review Part 3 Integral Citations

By: Writing Tips Today

When you write the literature review for your thesis or dissertation, you will need to use integral citations.  In his 1990 publication, John Swales explains the difference between integral and non-integral citations.

In integral citations, the name of the author appears in the sentence itself. However, in non-integral citations, the name of the author normally appears in parenthesis after the sentence, usually by using the author's last name and the year of publication.

Integral citations may take a variety of forms.  Please look at these examples:

According to Smith (2007), funding is one of the main problems which educators face.

Jones (2009) stated that state governements should do more to address the problem.

Planget's theory (2002) is that classroom size is inversely related to the ease of classroom management.

An opposing viewpoint is expressed by by Carlson (2003).

Now match each of the examples above with the description of its form below:

Researcher name as grammatical subject of the sentence  
Researcher name as part of a reporting phrase
Researcher name as agent of a passive sentence
Researcher name as part of a possessive noun phrase 

Please check our site often.  We frequently add new tips on thesis writing!

More Thesis Writing Advice and Tips

Writing Articles & Information.
About the Author:

Compliments of the Writing Tips Today website.


This Article is Brought to you by:


Writing Related Articles:

Writing a Thesis or Dissertation? How to Make Progress Even When You Don't Feel Like Writing

If you haven’t started working on your thesis or dissertation or aren’t currently actively working on it on a daily basis — let’s face it, you will most likely not finish it. That’s why you ha...

By: Wendy Carter

Thesis Writing Material And Where To Find It

If you are planning to find thesis writing materials, you need to know exactly what your topic is and how you will convey your information. You want to have a broad range for your topic to cover everything, but not to broa...

By: Tony Robinson

Organizing A Dissertation

Organizing a Dissertation: In this exercise you will learn the different ways to structure a dissertation or thesis. You will learn how to choose the best organization method of writing for your dissertation or thesis...

By: www.writing-tipstoday.com

Updated University Related News:


Useful Websites: