Litertaure Review Part 3 Integral Citations

By: Writing Tips Today

When you write the literature review for your thesis or dissertation, you will need to use integral citations.  In his 1990 publication, John Swales explains the difference between integral and non-integral citations.

In integral citations, the name of the author appears in the sentence itself. However, in non-integral citations, the name of the author normally appears in parenthesis after the sentence, usually by using the author's last name and the year of publication.

Integral citations may take a variety of forms.  Please look at these examples:

According to Smith (2007), funding is one of the main problems which educators face.

Jones (2009) stated that state governements should do more to address the problem.

Planget's theory (2002) is that classroom size is inversely related to the ease of classroom management.

An opposing viewpoint is expressed by by Carlson (2003).

Now match each of the examples above with the description of its form below:

Researcher name as grammatical subject of the sentence  
Researcher name as part of a reporting phrase
Researcher name as agent of a passive sentence
Researcher name as part of a possessive noun phrase 

Please check our site often.  We frequently add new tips on thesis writing!

More Thesis Writing Advice and Tips

Writing Articles & Information.
About the Author:

Compliments of the Writing Tips Today website.

This Article is Brought to you by:

Writing Related Articles:

The Dangers of Buying a Custom Term Paper

In case you are planning to cheat on a term paper, you should at least know how to do it right. Even though most teachers are not willing to admit it, many of the essays they get from students are copied, plagiarized or wr...

By: Morgan Hamilton

Literature Review Part 4 Nonintegral Citations

When you write a literature review for your thesis or dissertation, you will need to use some nonintegral ciatations or references. Non-integral citations are not included in sentences themselves.  These types of ref...

By: Writing Tips Today

Essay Writing- A Simple Formula

Writing essays can be a challenging skill for a lot of people but it doesn't have to be that way. Writing a...

By: Casandra Burfurger

Updated College Related News:

Useful Websites: