Literature Review Part 2 Using Citations

By: Writing Tips Today

Literature Review Part 2: When organizing your research within your review of the literature, you will need to use reporting verbs.  Reporting verbs can be used to introduce material objectively as fact or subjectively in order to demonstrate your position or opinion on the research of others.

Here are some example sentences showing how to use reporting verbs when giving citations:

Numerous studies have investigated this question (Smithson, 1999; Qwerty, 2002, Zachary, 2009).

 Jones and Anderson (2007) argued that .....

 Karlson (2005) observed that .....

 Candine's controversial study (2010) suggests that .....

A list of reporting verbs is provided below.  Note that some of these verbs can be used objectively, while others can be used subjectively.  Further, some of them can be used either way.

add

affirm

agree

argue

assert

assume

believe

challenge

claim

clarify

comment

conclude

consider

contend

contradict

demonstrate

deny

describe

determine

disagree

discern

discuss

dispute

emphasise

enumerate

explain

find

imply

infer

maintain

note

observe

point out

posit

postulate

propose

query

question

recognize

recommend

refute

reject

remark

report

repudiate

say

state

suggest

stipulate

view

Other structures:

As noted by . . . ,

According to . . . ,

In . . . 's view,

. . . has expressed a similar view

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