Literature Review Part 4 Nonintegral Citations

By: Writing Tips Today

When you write a literature review for your thesis or dissertation, you will need to use some nonintegral ciatations or references.

Non-integral citations are not included in sentences themselves.  These types of references are given in the information at the end of sentences.  Nonitegral citations are often included in parentheses or brackets at the end of the sentence containing the quoted material.

However, nonintegral citations can also be provided in footnotes at the bottom of each page of the thesis or dissertation. Nonintegral citations can also be given in endnotes at the end of the thesis or dissertation.

Read the following sentences. What is the difference between type A / B and type C / D?

You should analyze the position of the reference, as well as the grammatical subject of each sentence.

Non-integral citations:

A) Numerous studies have analyzed the use of allusion in Hemingway's fiction (Giggins 2005; Jensen 2007; Palmer 2008).

B) Additional classes of materials include metal derivatives (Lowe 1995; Johnson 1998).

C) It is known that the imperfections in the method will affect the outcome [6].

D) More recently, advanced calculus has been used as an element in certain analytical models [8].

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